Friday, May 22, 2020

Literature Review A Research Essay - 1741 Words

In order to better understand the topic of a discussion, a literature review is conducted. The literature review enables the researcher to look at different publications and researches, and to compare and contrast some of the major findings, outcomes, opinions, concepts, and ideas in order to better understand the topic or phenomenon under research. Through literature review, it is possible to better understand a given phenomenon and to positively deal with personal biases, inconsistencies, and irregularities. By looking at a wide array of sources, the researcher can familiarize herself with new findings, processes, observations, and perspectives, leading to a more accurate, reliable, valid, and authentic research process. Literature review plays an important role in aiding a researcher to achieve better outcomes by arranging his study in line with current trends. The literature review also gives the researcher some ideas about what to expect in their personal researches so that they can be better prepared for the study. 2.2 Technological Developments and Social Networking Sites When Hartshorne, Ajjan, and Cao (2016) conducted their study, they observed that there has been a significant increase in the number of social networking websites today. Indeed, Jacobsen and Forste (2011) argue that social networking websites have become an international phenomenon in recent years, with many individuals, especially teens and young adults becoming obsessed and addicted to thisShow MoreRelatedResearch Literature Review1653 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿ SOWK 562 – Summer 2014 Assignment #3: Intervention Literature Review July 20, 2014 Dr. Hsin-Yi Hsiao Intervention Description There are two distinct service models for persons experiencing homelessness that also have issues with mental illness and/or addictions, the treatment first model or the Housing First model. Housing First models utilize a supported housing approach in which consumers start with permanent, independent apartments and providers work with consumers regardlessRead MoreResearch Study On A Literature Review Essay1400 Words   |  6 Pages4.2 Research Hypothesis Hypothesis Researchers almost never conduct a study in an intellectual vacuum; their studies are usually under taken within the context of an existing knowledge base. It helps to lay the foundation for the study and also inspire new research idea. Hypothesis in other words is an assumption for the research, the researchers organizes his or her ideas and critically thinks what could be the reasons for the stated research questions; thinking of the reasons or possible causalRead MoreA Research Study On Literature Review1131 Words   |  5 PagesOne of the stages in writing a research paper is the literature review. Since there is very little that has not been studied in some form, good researchers find out all they can about their subjects before they commence their own study. Not only is it imperative to acquire what is already know about the subject, but a literature review enables the researcher to identify what is not known or well understood (Lanier Briggs, 2014). By conducti ng a literature review, one verifies what else needsRead MoreReview Of Literature And Research Design Essay1993 Words   |  8 Pages CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE RESEARCH DESIGN REVIEW OF LITERATURE Eur and Resnick (1988) Eur and Resnick attempted to create ex bet portfolio choice systems to acknowledge potential additions from universal broadening under adaptable trade rates. For the exact investigation the Morgan Stanley Capital lntemational Perspective every day stock record values for the United States and the other six nations were embraced. The stock records of United States, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, SwitzerlandRead MoreAction Research Literature Review2754 Words   |  12 PagesExecutive Summary Action Research believes that Human organizations can only be understood as whole entities (Baskerville, 1999) and that social processes are best to be studied when change is introduced to observe the effects of these. Furthermore, It makes use of a cyclical approach in order for an initial holistic understanding of a social setting. The action research literature has strongly challenged the character of positivism. It is believed that this type of research is derived from a differentRead MoreMarketing Research Literature Review1259 Words   |  6 PagesMarketing research I have chosen the market research because it is the very first step of most economical process. Philip Kotler (1994) define the marketing research as â€Å"function that links the consumer, customer, and public to the marketer through information-information used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems; to generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; to monitor marketing performance; and to improve understanding of the marketing process. Marketing researchRead MoreWater Quality Research Literature Review901 Words   |  4 PagesWater Quality Research Literature Review: Introduction: [work in progress] Turbidity: Turbidity refers to how clear water is. Turbidity determines how far light can penetrate into water. Excess soil erosion, dissolved solids or excess growth of microorganisms are most commonly the causes of high turbidity. Because water with a high turbidity can impede light, plants under the water may die as a result. Dead plants will not only result in less oxygen but the organic matter will only contributeRead MoreLiterature Review And Identification Of Research Environment Essay2117 Words   |  9 PagesI. Literature review and identification of research environment â€Å"If you’re not online, you’re off the radar† goes the advertisement from a local newspaper. The statement underlines the importance of having social presence in the World Wide Web. In this Social Network Era, businesses just like individual customers also have presence on Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Instagram, and YouTube. The arrival of Web 2.0 allowed users to network and collaborate with one another using social media sites. JustRead MoreLiterature Review : Recidivism Therapy Research1763 Words   |  8 Pagesssignment 4 Literature Review Recidivism Therapy Research Recidivism therapy research can be a very effective tool, in the combat of lowering rates of recidivism. The focus in cognitive functioning of prisoners can be a very useful in the way we treat repeat offenders. Research shows that changing the way people think about certain behaviors, while providing them with support systems lowers the risk of recidivism rates. We especially see this in the rates of young offenders. Which isRead MoreLiterature Review. While There Has Been Research In Subjects1028 Words   |  5 PagesLiterature Review While there has been research in subjects dealing with turnover, things such as organizational strategies have not been studied much. Davis (2013) has stated that there is little research on the strategies employers do to minimize turnover. There have been different studies that have researched different factors in employee turnover and satisfaction. Studies have been done on the retention and turnover of older workers (Armstrong-Stassen Ursel, 2009), developing retention policies

Saturday, May 9, 2020

An analysis of the main reasons for the continued spread...

An analysis of the main reasons for the continued spread of HIV HIV, a virus only discovered in the late 1970s, has now become the most lethal virus around the world (UNAIDS, 2008). Scientifically HIV is a kind of virus which can destroy human’s immune system. Then, without defense of the body, other virus can easily infect body and ultimately results in death (WHO, 2013). Till the end of 2012, 35.3 millions of people live with HIV (WHO, 2013) and large quantities of family members suffer from the pain. Yet such a lethal disease only has three simple transmissions, through unprotected sex, blood, and maternal-neonatal pregnancy. However, the high mortality rate suggests that there is an urgent need to investigate deeper causes of HIV†¦show more content†¦For instance, in Botswana (Africa), men have dominant position in sex and condoms are seven times less likely to be used (UNAIDS, 2008). Research also found that men trend to be aggressive and sexual dominant, putting women in such a vulnerable situation in sexual relationships, e ven in rape and violate. (ICRW, 2007; WHO, 2007; UNAIDS, 2008). 40%-60%of women in Bangladesh and Thailand claimed to have sex abuse by spouses (Garcia-Moreno et al., 2005; UNAIDS, 2008). Moreover nearly 31% of countries do not have gender equity law to protect women rights (UNAIDS 2008).Those severe inequity may be a result of preference of boys’ ideology. In poor districts family income is only paid on boys’ education whereas girls are supposed to support family (UNDP, 2007).Without basic knowledge, HIV protection is difficult to be obtained by girls, not mention the proper right defense. All these inequities between men and women lead to vulnerability of women in HIV positive situation. It is also noticeable that addiction to drugs is a global burden and causes large number of HIV-positive individual, especially among adolescent’s transmission. Statistics shows that new trend for drug market has been focused on teenagers rather than adults (Nossal Institute, 2010). According to Mazibuko (2000), drug abuse at the age of 10-24 accounted for 60 percent of HIV new infectors. Reasons for using drugs vary differently. Chase for excitement, avoidance from pressure, andShow MoreRelatedBurroughs Wellcome Case Analysis Essay1126 Words   |  5 PagesClarissa Kowalczyk April 3 2012 MAR 499 Case Analysis Burroughs Wellcome Company: Retrovir Summary and Recommendation: As I have read the case it was presented that in January of 1990, Burroughs Wellcome executives were under continued pressure to reduce the price of Retrovir, a drug which had been found to be effective in the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrom (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). After careful review of the data and the case I have come up with theRead More African Americans, HIV and AIDA Essay2302 Words   |  10 Pagesinfected with AIDS and 40,000-80,000 new infections with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) each year. There are few people who do not know someone who has died of AIDS, and it is estimated that, early in the new millennium, some forty million people worldwide will be infected with HIV, and ten million of them will develop AIDS. Research and statistics reveals that individual behavior is the strongest determinant of HIV and AIDS risk. This high-risk behavior place them in danger and is passed on to othersRead MoreHealth Disparities Of Botswana And The United States1876 Words   |  8 Pagesreproductive health has caused issues with women and their health. The main issue that was found was the prevalence in of STI’s, especially HIV. It is continuing to increase in the number of people infected. The purpose of the paper is to explore some reasons why the issues are continuing to arise and also suggestions on how to combat them. Through research it was found that many social aspects could be correlated to the overall reason of not being sexually healthy. This paper will start wit h giving generalRead MoreObjectives Of The Millennium Development Goals1478 Words   |  6 Pagesenvironmental sustainability. The eight goals are focus on different section the eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The aim of this essay is critical discuss the design and the progress of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of each goalsRead MoreHiv/Aids Pandemic in Liberia5712 Words   |  23 PagesBusiness College Stella Maris Polytechnic St. Joseph Campus, Capitol Hill, Monrovia, Liberia Course Title: English 201: Sophomore English I Topic: HIV/AIDS PANDEMIC: â€Å"Its Social Ramifications and Impacts on the Liberian Society† Thesis: Perhaps the most life-threatening, incurable but preventive disease to the human race is the HIV/AIDS Pandemic, and the awareness and understanding of its social ramifications and impacts on the Liberian society is paramount. Prepared by: JohnsonRead MoreAmebicides, Antibiotics and Antivirals (+definitions of well known diseases)6482 Words   |  26 Pagesof a chemical that the parasites produce to protect themselves once inside the red blood cells, this treatment results in the destruction of malaria thus curing the disease. Task 2 HIV Stages of development There are 3 stages in which HIV develops. Acute Infection: Within 2-4 weeks after infection with HIV, you can experience an acute illness, which is often described as severe flu. During this time of infection, large amounts of viruses are produced in your body. The virus uses CD4 cellsRead MoreTesting And Treatment Of Hiv 12811 Words   |  12 Pagesdemonstrated how resistances to certain HIV-1 anti-retrovirals are arising. As presented in the appendix, this specific section will evaluate the results from many randomized control trials (RCTs), case control studies, prospective cohort studies with and without controls, retrospective cohort studies with and without controls and cross-sectional studies. HIV-1 integrase inhibitors: HIV-1 integrase is one of the key enzymes required for the successful replication of HIV-1 and is often a common therapeuticRead MoreHiv/Aids Summary of Research Study8804 Words   |  36 PagesPROBLEM Introduction Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) results in destruction of the body’s host defenses and immune system leading to the condition called Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV-AIDS is one of the world’s greatest public health crises. For many years, because of lack of understanding and effective treatment, it is now considered a rapidly progressing fatal disease. HIV infection in humans is considered pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO)Read MoreManagement Accounting4264 Words   |  18 Pages 1. a) What is the rationale of founders of (product) Red? Their main reason for creating Product Red was to raise awareness and money for the Global Fund by teaming up with the world’s most iconic brands to products that would be sold. A percentage of each product sold would be donated to the Global Fund to help women and children affected by pandemics such HIV/AIDS and malaria. A basket of consumer goods were launched to this effect which included Product Red- American express card, vintageRead MoreThe Effects Of Religiosity And Culture On Adolescent Std Rates2944 Words   |  12 Pagesparasites; there are more than 20 types of STD’S. The germs that cause STD’s could be hidden in seamen, blood, and vaginal secretions and in some cases saliva (CDC). Transmission could be spread through vaginal sex, anal sex, and some with skin-to-skin contact. The most notable sexually transmitted diseases are HIV/AIDS, Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia, Syphilis, Pelvic Inflammatory disease, Herpes, Gonorrhea, and Trichomaniais. Some of these diseases could be cured if caught early, but unfortunately

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Culture Lens Free Essays

Culture lens Ford went through a hard time, not just because of the outside gloomy economics, but also the pressure of a dysfunctional, often defeatist culture. In Ford’s long business history, culture is not constant; it evolves, the business culture had been changed generation by generation in the economic progress and globalization. Both of essence and dross has been passed down in a grown bureaucracy, where people lost their innovation and structure is messy. We will write a custom essay sample on Culture Lens or any similar topic only for you Order Now The new chief executive of Ford Motor Co. , Alan R. Mulally was taking a culture revolution in this giant machine in order to pull it out of the deep mud. Organization values †¢Pioneered modern management techniques Period 1: Ford is the birthplace of the assembly line and home of the celebrated Whiz Kids, which highly increase the efficiency in the production and copied by the other companies. Period 2: After 1960s, Ford fell into a reverse way and has degenerated into a symbol of inefficiency. Right now, it has four parallel operating units and the company has more than 30 engineering platforms worldwide, each with its own costly bureaucracy, factories, and product development staff. Period 3: Mulally took a big step and would like to reduce the level of complexity. He wants to get that number down to five or six platforms, similar to Honda. More importantly, Ford tries to eliminate all of its unnecessary duplication. †¢Cooperation and efficiency Period 1: After assembly line been introduced to the world, Ford impressed all of their competitors by their highly cooperated work and their efficiency, employees worked together and impede the flaws passing to the next connection. Until the mid-’60s, Ford was considered a management shrine. Period 2: The bureaucracy at Ford grew, and managers took refuge in the structure when things got tough rather than innovate or try new ideas that seemed risky. Personal ties became important in Ford, ambitious managers focused increasingly on kissing the right rings instead of racking up results, which discouraged collaboration. Period 3: With Mulally’s idea, moving job tenures to a long tenure, collaboration would become more important in the future production and management. He has made it a top priority to encourage his team to admit mistakes, to share more information, and to cooperate across divisions †¢Customer focus Period 1: Ford focused on customer needs, developed scientific consumer research techniques, which was one of the first auto companies to create products that were based on hard data rather than the personal tastes of executives. Period 2: Employees consider more about their logics than customers’ needs. The tendency of employees is to rationalize mistakes instead of fixing them. Period 3: Mulally wants managers to think more about customers than their own careers. Shared assumptions †¢Rationalize problem instead of fixing problems In the example, it is easy to tell that employees’ logic with problems, rationalizing mistakes instead of fixing them and focusing on customers’ needs. †¢Royal hierarchy Within almost half century’s development, Ford has been fallen into a costly bureaucracy structure. People in the organization have their own status, and it is not allowed to share information freely, manager focus on their rings more than their jobs. †¢Mediocrity is acceptable Weary corporate lifers have become all too comfortable with the idea of losing money. They do not think about to fix problems or try new ideas that seemed risk but took refuge in the structure when things got tough. †¢Resist with outsiders Ford is a place that’s notorious for destroying auto industry outsiders–and Mulally is admittedly no car guy. Despite Bill Ford’s strong backing, employees are looks arrogant and resist the revolution from outside. Symbols †¢blue oval logo Ford’s logo is highly impressive by their customers, even in the economic crisis, Ford still can pledge their icon to finance enough money from banks and bondholders to turnaround. Assembly line This new product line created quite a stir when it had been introduced to product line; it changed the way manufacturing factory to run their business. What’s more, it is still significantly influence the world and operated in almost all of the manufacturing business. †¢Henry Ford Henry Ford obviously is an outstanding personage in business area, he invente d auto business and changed the way people assemble their products. Even right now, when people talk about Ford, we still cannot ignore his impact in the auto area. †¢Bureaucratic organization There are no other companies like Ford, has a high level of complexity within their organization structure. There are four parallel operating units and more than 30 engineering platforms worldwide. On the other side, duplication was common in the company; no two vehicles in Ford’s lineup share the same mirrors, headlamps, or even such mundane pieces as the springs and hinges for the hood. Changes in culture system can be slow and painful for an organization, especially in the high developed bureaucracy. However, the importance to take the revolution is obviously, with regard to globalization and fierce competition. How to cite Culture Lens, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Teaching Assistant free essay sample

Describe the key aspects of the role of a teaching assistant The key aspect of a teaching assistant is to carry out a range of different practical and administrative tasks. As well as, work under the direction of the teaching staff or senior staff in the supervision and support of the pupil’s learning. By doing this the teaching assistant is helping to make more time available for the teacher to teach, however the role of a teaching assistant may vary from school to school. The teaching assistant is required to support the following: * Supporting the teacher * Supporting the pupil * Supporting the school * Supporting the curriculum Supporting the teacher One of the primary responsibilities is to arranged the classroom according to the lessons and to insure the pupils work activities are displayed throughout the classroom. Observe and record the pupils behaviour, problems, progress and academics achievements as well as report the findings to the teacher. We will write a custom essay sample on Teaching Assistant or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Provide administration assistant as when and needed. Another responsibility of the teaching assistant is to work under direction of the teaching staff and senior staff in the classroom. Supporting the pupils Assist the pupils with their personal needs and help implant related personal programmes such as; * Social * Health * Physical * Hygiene * First aid * Welfare As well as building and maintain a good relationships with the pupils, by being a good role model and also responding to their individuals needs appropriately. Another responsibility is to observe and ensure the health and safety of the pupils who have access to the learning environment. Promote the welfare and acceptance of all pupils, motivate pupils to interact with others and participate in activites given by the teachers and also support the pupils to act independently when it’s appropriate. Supporting the school The teaching assistant needs to be knowledgeable of the policies and procedures relating to child protection, health, safety and security, confidentiality and data protection and reporting all concerns to an appropriate staff member. The teaching assistant also has to be aware of and support difference and make sure all pupils have equal access to opportunities to learn and develop. Attend meetings that are required. Continue personal development by participating in training and other learning activities and performance. Provide supervision of pupils out of lesson times i. e. including before and after school and lunchtimes. Assist teaching staff and pupils on visits, trips and out of school activities as required. Teaching assistant in schools provide an important role in the education supporting the wellbeing of the pupil in school and consistently providing input to raise the standard of the school Supporting the curriculum Supporting the curriculum the teaching assistants are not just part of the staff but are part of a team. The teaching assistant have the responsibilities to help the pupils understand instructions as well as help prepare the pupils with the regard of the local and national strategies which is given by the teacher e. g. numeracy, ks3, early years etc. Support the pupils in using basic ICT skills and to help prepare and maintain the equipment, resources as directed by the teacher and assist pupils in their use. Teaching Assistant free essay sample Describe how you might contribute to a lesson given to a group of seven year-old children learning to play percussion instruments? The role of the Teaching Assistant is to create and maximise the learning environment and to keep disturbing behaviour to a minimum. With this in mind my contribution to the learning of percussion instrument s would be. * Prior to the lesson taking place, I would make sure that the area they are going to be using is safe to the pupils and the instruments to be set up. If there is any other equipment is in the area which is not needed for the lesson, I would then put them away to another safe place. * That there is adequate equipment and that all instruments are in good working order prior to use. * I would also make sure I had a good knowledge of the instruments prior to the lesson, if I didn’t I would ask the teacher to clarify the names and also how they were to be used. We will write a custom essay sample on Teaching Assistant or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Then I can help show what the correct way to play the instruments are. * Going around the class and assisting any children who are struggle using the instruments, showing them how to hold and play with them. Making sure that music sheets are available if needed. * I would keep an eye on all pupils to make sure that they are behaving and help keep the pupils interested during the lesson to make sure that they don’t cause disruptive behaviour * As part of the role of a teaching assistant is observation, to within this in mind I will make observations to make sure they are following the objections of the lesson and following the guidelines * I will then provide my feedback of the lesson, to either the children or the teacher Q2 what might your role be in organising, using and maintaining the learning resources, materials and equipment? I would assist in the preparation of the resources, ensuring the classroom was set up before the lesson begins. To also ensure that all the instruments are set up correctly as instructed for the individual instrument and for how the teacher would like them. While doing this check I will make sure they are clean and in a safe working order. So the lesson can run smoothly we need to work out if they can work individually or within small groups. If the groups are to be using music sheets then I will make sure they are in good condition and if any of them need replacing. I would also encourage the children at the end of the lesson to be responsible to put the instruments away, but dependant of their age this might vary of how much they are allowed to do, to make sure it’s done correctly and safely to avoid any damages to the equipment, if any were damaged I would report this to the teacher to arrange either a replacement or to be repaired. I would also make sure that at the end of the lesson that all the work surfaces are clean and the classroom back to the how it would have been found at the beginning of the lesson. Q3 Describe how you act in class in order to be an effective role model for the standards of behaviour expected in pupils. As a teaching assistant it is essential to be an effective role model to promote positive behaviour both within the class and also in the school when around other pupils, teachers and staff. Pupils cannot be expected to behave in class if your own behaviour is not appropriate. It is also important to use appropriate language and that good manners are always used at all time, this would also apply when speaking to other adults and pupils. I would also show respect for other pupils and listen to them and help encourage them to show the same courtesy to you and others. This would also apply to following school rules and to make sure these are being adhered to. It is important to notice when children are trying hard and acknowledge it. But it is also important to not forget pupils who behave inappropriate and try and encourage them or to offer a reward be it sticker or reward chart. Positive recognition must always be followed up, for example if you have told a pupil you will tell the teacher of their good behaviour then this should be followed up and the teacher made aware of this. I would also encourage children to work as part of a team, pay attention and concentrate on the task. I would also offer support to those pupils who felt isolated or were not getting involved in the task set by the teacher. It is also important for the teaching assistant to be a good role model and is not only focused on the pupil’s behaviour but also their learning as well. Example of this could be a child in the class who is not confident enough to speak out loudly when involved in a group task, you could build up a rapport with the child and to try and work with them about ideas they have and to then encourage them to use these ideas with in the group. Q4 what strategies might you employ to encourage pupils to behave appropriately? Describe how you might react to incidents of bullying and violence. To encourage pupils to behave appropriately I would get them involved with making the rules, keeping them simple and not to make too many as this may distract them from why rules are there. I would look at designing posters for the wall which the pupils can work in group to put their own stamp on the rules. I would also encourage them strongly to adhere to these rules and what consequences may be if not followed. I would also encourage pupils of good standards of behaviour at all times and reward them for this i. . stickers or reward charts. This will then reduce any form a behaviour problems from occurring. Be proactive and to prepare things in advance by doing this it will reduce and problems occurring. And also to imagine any possible problems that may occur though out the lesson. All signs of bullying or violence should be taken seriously and reported and logged with the teacher or other school staff. I would als o make sure that any signs of bullying or violence is acted upon correctly to make sure or minimize it from happening in the future. This should be made aware to the pupils by the teacher and to also act upon any kind of follow up as directed from the teacher if bullying or violence is found be it in the classroom or outside the classroom. This could be dealt with by dealing with the incident individually and to assess what needs are required to eliminate this from happening in the future. I feel very strongly against anti-bullying and child protection so would make sure the pupils feel I can be approachable if they need someone to talk about. Q7. Describe how you might appropriately observe the physical abilities and skills of a nine year old boy. The first thing I would do is to find out exactly what the teacher is after from the observation. This way when I report back then we know I have been getting the right information. The observation would need to be carried out on normal day for the pupil so that you can see them at their full advantage and be able to report it correctly. To do a good observation you need to make sure the pupils don’t know what’s happening otherwise they won’t be themselves. This will entail a false observation and you won’t get a true result of their day to day behaviour . When observing the pupil I would attempt to make some rapport with the pupil so that they could comfortable with me being around them, especially if I am not generally known to them. Whilst doing the observation I would be looking for their- o Social and emotional – how they interact with other o Instructions – how they deal with group or individual tasks o Language and communication skills – how to speak to others o Physical abilities – how they move or handle objects

Friday, March 20, 2020

Essay on sociologyEssay Writing Service

Essay on sociologyEssay Writing Service Essay on sociology Essay on sociologyPart A. Family types in the U.S.: univariate analysisThis research is devoted to studying race and ethnic differences in family types and the role played by race-ethnic group poverty status in relation to these differences. One of important family characteristics is family type. In this research, three family types are considered: married couple family household, female headed family household with no husband/father present and male headed family household with no wife/mother   present.The total number of families in the census are 72,229,668. Table 1 contains the descriptive univariate statistics for family type variable. 76.8% of families belong to the type married couple family household and the remaining 23.2% of families are either male-headed or female-headed household. In general, it can be concluded that a predominant number of families (more than 3/4) are married couples.Part B. Race-ethnic differences in family type in the U.S.: bivariate analysisAnother important variable in this study is race-ethnic group, which is determined according to the self-identification of an individual, and can have the following values: Non-Latino White, Black, Latino, Asian and American Indian. Table 2 contains bivariate analysis of family type distribution by race-ethnic groups. The statistics for race-ethnic group is the following: there are 71,178,610 families total, 74.10% of them are identified as non-Latino Whites, 11.54% of them are Black, 3.41% are Asian, 10.17% are Latino and 0.79% are American Indian.Family type distribution notably varies across race-ethnic groups. The largest rates of married couples (as opposed to families headed by single parents) are among non-Latino Whites 82.6% and Asian 81.5%. The rate of married couples for Latino and American Indian families is significantly lower and constitutes 68.4% and 63.1% accordingly. The lowest percentage of married couples is among Black families only 47.1%.The statistics for race-ethni c groups pertaining to the rate of families headed by a single parent is inverse to that describing married couples: the rate of single-parent families is the highest for Black families 52.9%, is moderate for American Indian and Latino 36.9% and 31.5% accordingly, and is the lowest for Asian 18.5% and non-Latino Whites 17.4%.Part C. Family type and poverty status: bivariate analysesThird variable in this research is poverty status, which is identified by the family income and is classified into four categories: poor income below poverty threshold, near-poor family income within the boundaries of poverty threshold and 1.5*poverty threshold, middle family income between 1.5*poverty threshold and 5*poverty threshold, and comfortable family income above 5*poverty threshold.Table 3 illustrates bivariate analyses of the relationship between family type and poverty status. This table bases on the analysis of 72,229,689 households; 9.11% of them are classified as poor according to i ncome level, 7.05% have near poor income, 51.78% have middle income and 32.06% have comfortable level of income.The percent of married couples notably increases along with family income category: the highest rate of married couples is among families with comfortable income level 90.7% and the lowest is among poor families 41.0%. The rate of families headed by single parents has a strictly inverse relationship: the largest proportion of such families is among poor families 59% and the smallest rate of single parent families is among families with comfortable level of income only 9.3%.The pattern observed in table 3 is absolutely consistent with Zinns claim that proportion of married couple families increases among high socioeconomic status groups. There are significant differences in the rate of married couples among different socioeconomic status groups, and the highest the status of the group is, the higher the rate of married couples in this group is. The rates of married coup les for socioeconomic groups aligned by the increase of income level (poor, near poor, middle and comfortable) are 41.0%, 57.2%, 77.1% and 90.7% consequently; this sequence illustrates a distinct upward trend.One way in which socioeconomic status of a family can affect its likelihood of having a married couple is the lower probability of divorce among higher socioeconomic groups: financial stress and pressure belongs to one of the most significant stressors, and couples unaffected by this stress are likely to stay together for longer.Part D. Race-ethnicity and poverty status: bivariate analysesBesides considering the relation between socioeconomic status of families and the rate of married couples, it is important to analyze the distribution of poverty status for different race-ethnic groups. Table 4 contains bivariate analysis showing the distribution of poverty status across different race-ethnicity groups.The number of poor families is the smallest among non-Latino Whites (5.4%). One more race-ethnic group which has low number of poor families are Asian families (9.7% of poor families). The highest number of poor families is among American Indian families (21.8%) and Black families (21.5%). The rate of poor families among Latino families is also high 19.9%. Non-Latino Whites and Asian families also have the lowest rates of near poor families 5.2% and 7.2% accordingly, while the highest rate of near poor families is among Latino families 14.9%.The number of middle income families is comparable in all race-ethnic groups; it is slightly higher for non-Latino Whites and Latino families (52.1% and 52.8% accordingly) and is the lowest for Asian families 47.5%. As for families with comfortable income level, their rate is notably higher for non-Latino Whites (37.4%) and Asians (35.7%), and is the lowest among Latino families 12.5%.In general, it is possible to distinguish between non-Latino White and Asian race-ethnic groups which tend to have higher incomes a nd higher rates of married couples, and Black/Latino/American Indian race-ethnic groups which tend to have lower incomes and lower proportions of married couples (as it was shown in Table 3). Latino families are slightly better off, while Black and Indian American families are more vulnerable to poverty more than other race-ethnic groups. The patterns in Table 4 are similar to the relationship between the rate of married couples and race-ethnic group. Hence, hhe results shown in Table 4 support the claim that race-ethnic differences in socio-economic status might account for race-ethnic diversity in the proportion of married couples families.Part E. Married couple families in each race-ethnic group at different levels of poverty status: multivariate analysisIn order to assess whether the impact of poverty status is the only factor shaping race-ethnic differences in the proportion of married couples families, it is necessary to perform multivariate analysis of married couples rate an d race-ethnic group controlling for family status. Table 5 shows the results of this analysis.The data indicate that race-ethnic socioeconomic status is not the only factor affecting race-ethnic differences in family types. Indeed, if socioeconomic status was the sole factor determining race-ethnic differences in family types, there would be no significant differences among married couples rates for different race-ethnic groups with the same poverty level. However, there are very notable differences among the rates of married couples in different race-ethnic groups controlled by poverty. Among poor families, the highest percent of married couples is among Asian families (66.8%) and the lowest is among Black families (17.8%). A similar trend can be witnessed for other socioeconomic groups: among families with near poor income level, the highest rate of married couples is among Asian (75.3%) and the lowest is among Black families (36.9%). Among middle-income families, the highest rate of married couples belongs to non-Latino Whites (81.3%), closely followed by Asian (80.0%). The lowest rate of middle-income married couples is among Black families (53.9%). Among families with comfortable level of income, the rates are high for all race-ethnic groups, with the highest rate being among non-Latino Whites (92.1%), followed by Asians (88.7%), while the Black families still have the lowest rate of married couples (76.4%).The data clearly indicate that family income does influence the number of married couples, as the rate of married couples notably increases with the increase of socioeconomic status for all race-ethnic groups. At the same time, there are other social factors influencing the rate of married couples since there are significant differences between race-ethnic groups for the same family income level. In particular, it is possible to state that Asians are likely to have one of the highest rates of married couples regardless of their income level, while non- Latino White families are highly likely to live as married couples only for middle and comfortable income levels.Black families have considerably lower rates of married couples compared to other race-ethnic groups at all levels of family income. There might be multiple social causes of this alarming phenomenon. One of such causes might be the level of education among the members of Black families which might be lower compared to other groups. At the same time, education level is often related to income so it might be the consequence of the relationship between the rate of married couples and family income level. Another plausible cause of low rates of married couples among Black families might be the combination of two factors: high prison rates among Black men (which reduce the pool of potential partners for Black women) and the increasing percentage of interracial marriages between Black males and non-Black females (this trend also reduces the pool of potential husbands for Black women).Part F. Discussion and conclusionAccording to Maxine Baca Zinn, there exists such phenomenon as racial stratification. The differences in the patterns of reproductive and productive labor which have emerged historically have led to the differences in the social position and access to social resources between the representatives of different race-ethnic groups. These differences which are not directly attributable to race but largely to the functioning of social institutions and their historical legacy are referred to by Maxine Baca Zinn as racial stratification.Furthermore, the author states that racial stratification has a notable impact on families, and there emerges a significant link between race and family in the United States. Indeed, the author emphasizes that racial stratification leads to different social positioning of families, creates distinctive patterns in the locations of families. In addition to this, the structure of social opportunities and their accessibili ty vary for different race-ethnic groups, and therefore influence development and social integration of families.Maxine Baca Zinn also points out that the changes in racial composition of the society have a strong influence on family structure and on the development of family as a social institution. In particular, the author emphasizes Black families as an important social indicator of the general social processes, and states that many family behaviors which have emerged among middle-income families of non-Latino Whites were actually common for Black families for a long time, but were considered as deviant or improper earlier. Maxine Baca Zinn argues that family is changing as a social institution and shows that there is an important relationship between race and family in the United States. As racial composition of the society is changing, family institution will also respond with changes and transformations.The results of data analysis exercise are mostly consistent with Baca Zin ns argument about the relationship between racial stratification and family. In the short-term perspective, the assumptions of Maxine Baca Zinn are likely to be correct: there are notable differences in the rate of married couples among race-ethnic groups, and some of these differences are clearly related to socioeconomic position (which is, according to Baca Zinn, associated with race and ethnicity). Indeed, the patterns common for Black families seem to be significantly different from non-Latino Whites and Asian, with the patterns for American Indians and Latinos being in between the two extremes.At the same time, in order to assess whether the data support or refute Baca Zinns claims, it is necessary to explore the dynamics of changes in the rate of married families by race-ethnic group during a long-term period of time. Baca Zinn emphasizes that the changes of racial composition of the society lead to the changes in family status, and the most appropriate way to assess this woul d be to collected data for 10- or 20-year period. However, in the short-term perspective the findings of the data analysis largely support Baca Zinns claims.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Review of Online Learning Platform Instructure Canvas

Review of Online Learning Platform Instructure Canvas Canvas Instructure is an online learning platform that allows students to integrate their accounts with social media sites such as Twitter and Facebook. It is one of the top online learning platforms available. Best of all,  students and instructors acting individually (not subscribing  as  an entire school) can use the program for free. Canvas offers some unique  Web 2.0  features. However, Canvas Instructures best attribute is its ability to convey information intuitively. Canvas Instructure makes it easy for students and instructors to navigate the well-designed site. The platform isnt without its faults, but overall, Canvas Instructure simply feels better to use than most other online learning platforms. Using Canvas Instructure as an Instructor Canvas Instructure solves a lot of problems for instructors. For example, it allows assignments to be quickly created from several places on the website. Information about each assignment is automatically parsed into the course calendar, syllabus, or grade book without any additional action from the instructor. Grading is simple and weighted grades can be created with ease. A speed grader allows instructors to grade more quickly and without the dreaded load time that many other learning platforms require. Using Canvas Instructure as a Student Students can keep track of their progress in the class, complete assignments, and participate in discussions with ease. The grade book allows students to see both their grades for individual assignments and their overall grade. Students can even enter in alternative scores for assignments to project how their overall grade would be impacted by a higher or lower score. They can choose to connect their accounts to multiple email addresses, text-receiving phone numbers, and social media pages. Drawbacks fo Canvas Instructure Canvas Instructure does have a few drawbacks. The platform was  known to be a bit buggy, and edits sometimes changed back to older versions of a document. Occasionally, the system does something unexpected and leaves instructors worrying about how to fix the problem. Most instructors rely on the dependability of their online learning platform and little issues can end up making a big difference. It would also be helpful if modules could be viewed on stand-alone pages and could be included in the design-your-own front page. Pros and Cons It may be helpful to view a quick guide to the pros and cons of Canvas Instructure Web 2.0, as well as the programs overall features: Basic Information: Its an online learning management system.It offers Web 2.0 integration.It is free to use for individuals. Pros It has an intuitive, easy-to-use formatThe design is clean and simple.It makes grading and viewing grades easy.It offers easy social media integration. Cons The site can be a bit buggyThere is no simple way to add one-sentence reading assignments to a calendar.It is not easy to find online information on how to use the platform. Overall, Canvas Instructures Web 2.0 platform allows for real-time collaboration through a variety of social media platforms such as blogs, Google apps (such as Google Docs), and even via smartphones.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Project 3 Information System Security Plans Research Paper

Project 3 Information System Security Plans - Research Paper Example Then, with todays rapidly changing political, economic, and importantly technical environment increasing the threat for the federal agencies, it becomes paramount for those agencies to adopt a strong security plan. In that direction, the Information Technology Laboratory (ITL) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed guidelines on the ways to formulate and adopt a security plan. â€Å"NIST SP 800-53 contains the management, operational, and technical safeguards or countermeasures prescribed for an information system† (Swanson, Hash & Bowen, 2006). Among the various parts of the NIST’ security plan, the focus will be on the four sections of General Description, System Environment, Laws, regulations, and policies, and finally Security Control Selection. So, when a federal agency like Department of Defense (DoD) adopts a security plan, these four sections can contribute optimally to the process and so the discussion will about why are thes e sections are important and how they can be applied in DoD. All federal agencies or systems including DoD reflect some to extreme level of sensitivity and because of that it requires protection for its physical IS system and its virtual data as part of secured and good management practice. In that direction, DoD adopted a risk-focused security plan and guidelines of NIST in 2014 after dropping its longstanding DoD Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation Process (DIACAP). DoD transitioned to NIST considering its effectiveness, in-depth focus and at the same user-friendly nature. â€Å"The NIST library of security controls (in NIST publication 800-53 Rev. 4), currently in use at most civilian agencies, are much larger and the controls more granular, yet easier to understand and implement, than DIACAP, say those familiar with both methods†